Thursday, March 19, 2020

AdBlue Fluid and Cleaner Diesel Emissions

AdBlue Fluid and Cleaner Diesel Emissions AdBlue is the German brand name for a clear, non-toxic- though slightly corrosive to some metals- aqueous urea solution used to treat exhaust on  modern clean diesel engines. The generic name for a chemically equivalent solution used in the non-European market (predominantly North America) is Diesel Emissions Fluid (DEF). The primary use of AdBlue and similar DEFs is to be used in conjunction with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) converter to control oxides of nitrogen (NOx) diesel emissions. On average, NOx emissions are reduced by approximately 80 percent because of this process. How DEFs Work The AdBlue solution is comprised of 32.5 percent high purity urea diluted in distilled water and carried onboard the diesel vehicle in a special independent tank. Under the direction of the onboard computer and a NOx sensor, the fluid is pumped into the exhaust stream at the rate of 2 to 4 ounces to a gallon of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) consumed. There, in the hot exhaust stack, the urea solution is converted into ammonia (NH3) which reacts with NOx in the exhaust. The resulting chemical breakdown  and re-bonding of the constituent elements of each reactant produce plain nitrogen and water vapor instead of harmful oxides of nitrogen.   Standardized as Aqueous Urea Solution (AU) 32, the AdBlue solution is trademarked to German company the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA), but there  is a variety of other DEFs available on the American market including BlueTec by German automotive corporation Daimler AG and the Canadian version H2Blu. How and Where Is AdBlue Replenished? Refilling the AdBlue tank is  not a do-it-yourself task. Although it is possible to purchase the solution at the retail level, it is generally available only through a dealership or service shop. The systems are designed with a capacity of several gallons (seven to ten) which translates into several thousands of miles. Under normal vehicle operating conditions, the DEF tank needs to be refilled only during regularly scheduled maintenance. However, as of 2013, trucks and diesel engine cars have been created to allow users to refill their own DEF tanks. As a result, a number of truck stops and gas stations have begun offering a DEF pump next to the diesel fuel pump. You may even purchase small quantities- or order large containers for commercial use- to keep at home. Although safe to handle and non-toxic, AdBlue can eat through some metals. It is recommended that DEFs be stored at cool temperatures away from direct sunlight and moisture in a well-ventilated area. According to a Cummins Filtration report on the standard, AdBlue freezes at 12 degrees Fahrenheit, but the process of freezing and thawing does not degrade the product as the water in the urea  solution will freeze and thaw as the fluid does.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Writing with Rhythm

Writing with Rhythm Writing with Rhythm Writing with Rhythm By Guest Author This is a guest post by Hugh Ashton. If you want to write for Daily Writing Tips check the guidelines here. When I was substantially younger than I am now, I wrote masses of anguished adolescent poetry. My favorite verse form was the sonnet, a style and format that is maybe little surprising for a teenager to be writing. For those who slept through this part of their English course, a sonnet is a formal 14-line poem with a complex rhyme scheme in iambic pentameter. I no longer indulge in such musings, but I learned many tricks and techniques from writing my sonnets and other poems. First and foremost, writing poetry, especially formal poetry, tells you a good deal about the internal rhythms of the English language. Most of the spoken English language moves to a fundamental iambic rhythm: di-DUM di-DUM di-DUM. Put five of these together and you have a line of blank verse: Now is the winter of our discontent Or Is this the face that launched a thousand ships? Or The stars move still, time runs, the clock will strike, The devil will come, and Faustus must be damnd. In the second line of the last quotation, note how Marlowe breaks the rhythm slightly for emphasis (if you dont slur the word devil into one syllable, that is), and then reverts to the set rhythm for the second half of the line. You dont have to write in this formal style, of course, but you should make yourself aware of the internal stresses in English prose, and how they carry readers through your writing. Until relatively recently (a few hundred years ago), all reading was done out loud everyone read by vocalising the written words. When these rules of internal rhythm are broken, as in this quotation from a camera manual, the result is clotted prose prose which does not flow: Depth of field is the area of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind the subject in focus. The larger the F-number used (from F2.8 to F22), the deeper the depth of field. On the contrary, the smaller the F-number (from F22 to F2.8), the shallower this zone of acceptable sharpness. Its not bad English its free of jargon but its not good either. Another reason why these sentences do not flow is the lack of macro rhythm,the pauses for comprehension (and breath!) in the middle of a sentence. For another example, take this sentence from a recent Pentagon report: There is a crisis of confidence among Afghans in both their government and the international community that both undermines our credibility and emboldens the insurgents. If you read this out loud, its all got to be done in one breath. Theres no pattern to the sentence. By the time youve got to the end, you forget what the beginning was like. Heres a suggested rewriting: The Afghan people are experiencing a crisis of confidence in both their own government and the international community, and this is undermining our credibility, as well as emboldening the insurgents. Not perfect Id probably split this sentence into two but the sentence now has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Note how there is also an implied contrast between the Afghan people and the insurgents in my version that is somewhat lacking in the Pentagon original. Returning to my youthful bad poetry (and here is an example of super-macro rhythm in a piece of writing the thematic tie-up between the start of a piece and the end), the other major thing I learned from writing formal verse was to use a mental thesaurus, and not to be afraid to change the order of my words. I say a mental thesaurus, because a paper thesaurus can be too restrictive; wandering around the canyons of your mind can produce some interesting twists and turns that would never be explored using a printed page. Its all too easy to write bad ungrammatical verse: As on my bed I toss and turn Remembering things I tried to learn But relatively easy to recast these lines into something more grammatical and natural: Im lying wide-eyed in my bed While half-learned facts race round my head By forcing the grammar to be natural, I have also forced myself to think of different words and thereby avoid clichà ©s and hackneyed phrases. It works for prose too. Try to read your work out loud before you submit it. Does it work as a live reading? Does the language flow? Do the sentences hang together? Does the piece have thematic coherency? In other words, have you got rhythm? Hugh Ashton is a writer and journalist who has lived in Japan for the past 21 years. As a copywriter and rewriter of translated material, he has become increasingly pernickety and critical of his own writing and that of others. His latest published work is an alternate history novel, Beneath Gray Skies, which is available from Amazon, etc. Details of the book may be found at Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Synonyms for â€Å"Leader†8 Types of Parenthetical PhrasesCapitalizing Titles of People and Groups

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Case Study 7 & 8 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Case Study 7 & 8 - Essay Example Working as a single domain,, CCI has two domain controllers one for each facility, and three member servers, one for internal emails and other applications and others are used for CCIs main database. The business layer, as related to the Top-Down Model, has been serving the needs of all staff scattered in two facilities situation in Ohio by the IT Manager. Internet connection was not provided to the staff as such demand has not been made by the staff. Through the TCP/IP protocol, all the 50 employees were provided computers, servers, and routers with private IP address, joining two locations through a dedicated T1 line. Two subnets using the subnet mask have been created by the IT department for connectivity between the two facilities. At the application layer, Microsoft SQL Server is being used to store the main database of CCI. Strict modular separation of functionality at application layer has been provided through the TCP/IP protocol through T1 line and creating subnets. At the network layer, as per the new business requirements to provide access to suppliers and customers of important information related to order processing and supply chain management through extranets while giving due consideration to security and cost reduction, firewall and Network Address Translation (NAT) was recommended to the owner of CCI by its IT head. NAT router made it possible to purchase less IP addresses and provide security by translating the internal IP addresses of employees to external addresses. Thus, through NAT, the NAT router worked as a negotiator between public internet and private network. At the data layer, CCI has in place LAN for faster data transfer through Microsoft SQL server to its database. The technology layer of Ethernet with LAN has provided excellent connectivity among the staff at the two facilities to share resources.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

My Life, My Religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

My Life, My Religion - Essay Example The Bible or the hymn book was my only choices so I choose the storybook. My parents decided to allow me to read, I suppose because it kept me from sleeping or fidgeting. My interest in this very long and difficult to comprehend book grew over time as did the time invested in exploring it. I began reading at home during episodes of boredom. This experience during my early teen years changed my outlook and shaped my philosophy of life. As I read, what I thought was important became rather meaningless. I began to develop a much different set of values than my friends, neighbors, and family. What fascinated me the most were the first four books of the New Testament. I found the words of Christ simple, to the point and ultimately a path to inner contentment. The Bible gave me the foundation of what I have built upon since my youth. Since then, I have read other philosophical and religious books and found they do not contradict, in fact, they support the tenets found in the Bible. Though the roots of my viewpoint begin with the Bible, I do not consider myself Christian, far from it. Most religions I know including and especially Christianity teach that ‘we are the right path to God’ therefore no other belief system is valid. My interpretation of Christ’s words leads me to believe the division is ultimately destructive for the individual and society. Rather, I concluded that inclusion and finding the similarities help bind us all together. The words of Christ allowed me to develop a new viewpoint which teaches the path to real happiness. In my case, this involves thinking in ways that bolster my self-respect, what makes me proud of me. Others, of course, have different views on what makes them happy such as ‘if I make more money, I’d be higher on the social ladder’ or ‘if I had more control over my life, I’d be happy then.’Â  

Saturday, January 25, 2020

A Strategic Management In A Global Context Business Essay

A Strategic Management In A Global Context Business Essay Formal Strategic Planning is the process that involves an organisation in the defining of its strategy or direction and making the decisions on how its resources should be allocated in order to achieve this strategy. Formal strategic planning is affected by the macro-environment and this is the highest level layer in the framework, this consists of a wide range of environmental factors that impact to some extent on almost all organisations. The PESTEL framework can be used to identify how future trends in the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environment and Legal environments might affect an organisation. Pestel analysis provides the broad date from which key drivers to change can be identified. By using these key drivers organisations can envision scenarios for the future. Scenarios can be used to help organisations decide if change needs to happen depending on the different ways in which the business environment may change. It is important for managers to analyse these factors in the present and how they are likely to change in the future. By analysing these, managers will be able to draw out implications for the organisation. Pestel factors are sometimes linked together i.e. technological factors can impact on economic factors. It is necessary to identify the key drivers of change these are environmental factors that are likely to have a high impact on the success or failure of the strategy. Key drivers vary by industry i.e. Primark may be concerned by social changes that can change customer tastes and behaviours. The critical issues are the implications that are drawn from the understanding in guiding strategic decisions and choices. The next stage is drawn from the environmental analysis specifically strategic opportunities and threats for the organisation. Having the ability to identify these opportunities and threats is extremely valuable when thinking about strategic choices for the future. Opportunities and threats form one half of the SWOT analysis that shapes a companys formulation. The use of SWOT analysis can help summarise the key issues from the business environment and the strategic capability of an organisation that are most likely to impact on strategy development. Once the key issues have been identified an organisation can then assess if it is capable to deal with the changes taking place within the business environment. If the strategic capability is to be understood the business must remember that it is not absolute but relative to its competitors. SWOT analysis is only useful if it is comparative, that is it examines strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. SWOT analysis should help focus discussion on the future choices and to what extent an organisation is capable of supporting these strategies. SWOT analysis should not be used a substitute for more in-depth analysis. In responding strategically to the environment the goal is to reduce identified threats and take advantages of the best opportunities. Peter Drucker, discussing the importance of business policy and strategic planning in his book the practice of management says we cannot be content with plans for a future that we can foresee. We must prepare for all possible and a good many impossible contingencies. We must have a workable solution for anything that may come up. By taking advantage of the strategic gap (which is an opportunity in the competitive environment that has not been fully exploited by competitors) organisations can manage threats and opportunities. Core competencies are a set of linked business processes that deliver superior value to the customer, when these are combined they create strategic value and can lead to competitive advantage. By using Porters five forces analysis which is a framework for organisations to analyse industry and business strategy, they can draw upon the five forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Three of Porters five forces refer to competition from external sources and the other two are internal threats. This analysis is just one part of the complete Porter strategic model the others include the value chain (VC) and the generic strategies. According to Porter (2008) the job of a strategist is too understand and cope with competition; however managers define competition too narrowly as if it has occurred only among today direct competitors. Competition goes beyond profits to include competitive forces such as customers, suppliers, potential entrants and substitute products; the extended rivalry that results from all five forces defines an industrys structure and shapes the nature of competition within an industry. For example Apple are good at technology and innovation therefore they can take the opportunities that give them competitive advantage and makes them leaders compared to Samsung or Nokia. Porters says there are 5 forces that shape the competition: Threat of new entrants Bargaining power of customers powerful customers usually bargain for better services which involve cost and investment Bargaining power of suppliers may determine the cost of raw materials and other inputs effecting profitability Rivalry among competitors competition influences the pricing and other costs like advertising etc. Threats from substitutes where-ever substantial investments in RD is taking place, the threat of substitutes is large. It also affects profitability. Competitive advantage is the heart of strategy and for the strategy to succeed the organisation should have relevant competitive advantage. We can see an example of this with Toshiba who operate in electrical goods, through a flexible manufacturing system it manufactures different products / varieties of some products on the same assembly lines. At Ohme it assembles nine varieties of computers on the same line and on the adjacent line it assembles 20 varieties of lap top computers. It is able to switch from one product / variety to another instantly at low cost and makes profits on low volume runs too. This flexibility of Toshiba to respond quickly and easily to the fast changing market demand is definitely one of its competitive advantages. Whereas its competitors make profits only through long volume runs of a particular model. However, there are a lot of companies who are choosing not to invest due to the recession; however Lidl and Aldi are taking advantage of supplying cheaper products giving them competitive advantage over say Waitrose. Benefits of Strategic Planning Effective strategic planning can positively improve the performance of an organisation and give them the ability to serve more clients, access additional resources or enhance the quality of service/product. It can also offer solutions to major organisational issues or challenges and gives stakeholders of the organisation an opportunity to develop harmonic solutions to long-term issues/challenges that have been affecting the organisation. Furthermore it allows for forward thinking, allowing an organisation the opportunity to pause and revisit the mission and create long-term vision. It allows clear future direction allowing stakeholders to look to the future, plan and respond to changes. Evaluation One of the major drawbacks of formal strategic planning is the uncertain dynamic environment, things change constantly and everything becomes shorter. The recession at the present time is making everything unpredictable and this is not good for strategic planning. According to Mintzberg 1994 strategic planning should be used to devise and implement the competitiveness of each business unit. Scientific management was pioneered by Fredrick Taylor and involved separating thinking from doing and thus creating a new function staffed by specialists. Planning systems were expected to produce the best strategies as well as step by step instructions on how to achieve this, but this never worked well. According to Mintzberg strategic planning is not strategic thinking, the most successful strategies are visions, not plans. When an organisation can differentiate between planning and strategic thinking they can then get back to what the strategy making process should be. Once a manger has the ability to learn from all sources around him, including personal experiences and market research and can integrate this into a vision of the direction that the business can then pursue. Mintzberg suggests that strategic planning is a misconception and rests upon three unsound arguments: that prediction is possible, thats strategists can be detached from the subjects of their strategies, and that the strategy-making process can be formalised. Strategic thinkers can apply lessons learned from Mintzberg (1994) three inherent fallacies of traditional planning: The Fallacy of Prediction is the assumption that we can actually control events through a formalised process that involves people engaged in creative or even routine work and can manage to stay on the predicted course. You need more than hard facts you need the personal touch. People are not objective, they are complex. The Fallacy of Detachment is the assumption we can separate the planning from the doing, if the system does the thinking, then strategies must be detached from the tactics. Formulation from implementation, thinkers from doers. One objective is to make sure senior managers receive relevant information without having to immense themselves in the details. One fact is innovation has never been institutionalised and systems have never been able to reproduce the synthesis created by the entrepreneur or the ordinary strategist and probably never will. The Fallacy of Formulisation suggests that systems could certainly process more information, at least hard information. However they could never internalise it, comprehend it, and put it all together. Such control is more a dream that a reality. Reality tells us that anomalies, the fickle behaviour of humans and the limitations of analysis play a huge factor in the organisational outcomes and to disregard them is risky and could lead to incomplete planning. What are the limitations of strategic planning when things are changing rapidly? The limitations of formal strategic planning can be seen if the future is uncertain and the expectations divert from the plan. There could also be internal resistance to formal strategic planning due to factors including: Information flows, decision making and power relationships could be unsettled Current operating problems may drive out long-term planning efforts There are risks and fears of failure New demands will be placed on managers and staff Conflicts with the organisation are exposed Planning is expensive in time and money Planning is difficult and hard work The completed plan limits choices and activities for the organisation in the future Nicholas ORegan, Abby Ghobadian, (2002) Formal strategic planning: The key to effective business process management?, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 8 Iss: 5, pp.416 429

Friday, January 17, 2020

A Proposal to Abolish Grading

In every education system, grading and testing are done simultaneously so as teachers and lectures can know the capabilities of their students and whether they have assimilated what have been taught and used effectively.Most of universities and higher learning institutions as prerequisite of students admission is being tested before granted admission, the system help the universities assessing applicants’ capabilities in correspondence to their applications.The grading system which is conducted after certain amount of academic units covered of students respective courses or subjects, apart from assessing students’ capabilities, also assist them in studying especially for lazy students. When students know that there will be grading for the tests they are going to do, definitely they are going to study hard for it.I tend to differ with Paul Goodman in his proposal to abolish grading as the notion has been much effective for quite some time and has helped most of students scoring good grades even though they were lazy. But to Paul Goodman, who proposed the abolishment of grading take this as bullying students as he argues that â€Å"Many students are lazy, so teachers try to goad or threaten them by grading. In the long run this must do more harm than good.†(Paul Goodman, Mis-Education, 1971).Nevertheless, grading system assist in discovering people weaknesses being students or applicants to the higher learning. Through grading students can be able to spot their weaknesses in accordance with the type of grades they get either low or high. If low then students have an opportunity of knowing how to correct it so as to improve their grades, hence becoming knowledgeable.Despite the good intention the system has, there are setbacks that have been spotted by Paul Goodman as he argues that â€Å"But if the aim is to discover weakness, what is the point of down-grading and punishing it, and thereby inviting the student to conceal his weakness, by fak ing and bullying, if not cheating?†(Paul Goodman, Mis-Education, 1971).In conclusion, even though students might cheat during their assignments, yet they will be working hard in the tests and examinations which will help them study. Grading and testing system still assist students to learn more through the performance of their grades.Reference:Goodman Paul, ‘A proposal to abolish grading’, Mis-Education, (1971), Chapter 10, John Wiley New York   

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Rhetorical Analysis Of The Gettysburg Address By Abraham...

Katrina Ta Giang 22 December 2017 AP Language and Composition(7) Mrs. Faumuina Speech Analysis Essay: The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln â€Å"The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War†(History). It was a battle in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, consisting of the Union Army and the Confederate Army. The main purpose behind this battle was due to â€Å"Robert E. Lees plan to invade the North and force an immediate end to the war failed†(ThoughtCo.). At the ending of the battle, victory was on the Union Army’s side, as they won. This battle had then led, at that time, President Abraham Lincoln to give a speech called the Gettysburg Address. The Gettysburg†¦show more content†¦His main purpose was to encourage perseverance, and it could have not been accomplished if he did not appear as trustworthy, honorable, respectful, and appreciative of his men’s bravery, as he did. His choice of word helped him touch his audiences because it created a type of emotional connection between them. The second rhetorical device that was used in this speech was allusion. The statement that Lincoln used was, â€Å"all men are created equal.† It was is an allusion to the Declaration of Independence, which was a piece that was very important to his audience. This statement means that each and every person that was born has the right to pursue anything and everything that they desire to in this world. With everyone being created equally, nobody should have the fear of being usurped by others. He used this quote because he wanted his audiences to feel like they had motivation and dedication to stand up for themselves during that hard time. Another rhetorical device that was used was anaphora. Abraham Lincoln used the word â€Å"we† a lot throughout his speech. He specifically used â€Å"we† a lot because it was meant to emphasize peace and agreement. As I was reading the speech, I had noticed that Lincoln didn’t really use â€Å"I† or â€Å"you† in his speech, which made me infer that he wanted to feel close with the crowd. By choosing that choice of word, it lead the people of the crowd to believe that they should feel the same wayShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address1564 Words   |  7 PagesA rhetorical analysis explores nonfictional works and determine if the techniques used make the piece effective (Texas AM University). The Gettysburg Address is one of the most notorious speeches. A rhetorical analysis of this legendary speech would reveal the key components that made it so prominent. The evaluation of the genre, and rhetorical devices, et hos, pathos, and logos, in the speech show how the piece was effective. Abraham Lincoln is one of the most renowned presidents in history. 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